similarly was in the case of C. R. Darwin which used
conception of T.R. Malthus when he was elaborating
conspectus of his theory in 1842. Earlier, in 2008 I
worked out a framework of theory of social evolution,
basing on logistic conception which was discovered by
P.F.Verhulst in 1838.
1. Biological evolution The term evolution introduced to biology Charles de Bonnet, Swiss naturalist from XVIII c. A biological evolution we call process of transformations of organisms within many generations, both with reference to transformations of their construction as and functions. It leads from more simple forms to more complex and developed. Eleven billions years took evolution to reach biological phase, but only three to reach first primitive organisms, and only several hundred millions to reach high developed and later intelligent animals. It is rather sure that it is not only perspective delusion arising because of passing of time - like optical delusion when we see close objects more precisely than far. I think that this development can be described the best by so called Logistic development. diagram 1. Logistic development In 1972 J.S.Gould and N.Eldredge proposed new conception of evolution - arising of specieses called Punctuationalism. In this theory speciation, takes place very quickly in not large populations. Can last thousands and even hundreds of years, what in scales of the geologic time counted in millions and hundreds of millions of years, has a punctual character. Sigmoid development describes exactly this conception, though hitherto was not at all considered its use in this intent.
In mathematics logistic development coupled is with Normal distribution model. Turns out that also this model, which founds some applications in different disciplines, has important meaning for biology. Simple plants and gymnosperms include above 150 thousands specieses, angiosperms above 250 t. specieses, fungi 1,5 mln, insects about 1 mln, primitive animals tens thousands, fishes 24,5 t., reptiles 13 t., birds 9350, mammals 4630. Moreover the same conception describes evolution on higher levels, Mega - whole biological evolution and Giga - three phases of gigaevolution - see diag 2. Gradual changes on these levels can - in a greater temporal scale - show differentiation. In reference to biological megaevolution logistic theory clearly illustrates and can explain so called "Cambrian explosion" (590-545 millions of years). It shows that development after achievement of certain critical level suddenly accelerates - see end of text - mechanism of evolutional processes. 2. Gigaevolution
diagrams 2,3. Gigaevolution Quick biological phase was preceded by relatively stable astrophysicochemical phase. Attainment of relatively stable civilizational - psychosociocultural phase should take us hundreds years. On diagram 3 we can see Gigaevolution with more details. Cosmological megaevolution was leading from primordial explosion - nb. logistic development is its perfect model to arising of matter. Physical from fundamental particles and interactions to atoms and chemical elements. Chemical from inorganic to organic compounds. Biological from simple cells to intelligent hominids. Civilizational megaevolution is leading from simple religious culture to complex cosmical culture. It consists of three main subprocesses connected with three types of civilization, dependently from their cosmic range:
- Type I, planetary, is connected with transition inside simple religious culture, about 10000 BC
- Type II, civilization which is entering in interplanetary space, is connected with transition from simple religious culture to complex scientific culture, present and future time
- Type III, which is entering in interstellar space, far future
Processes of gigaevolution and biological megaevolution possess common turning point, it was appearance of fish-amphibia similar to genus Ichthyostega (370 millions of years). According to mechanism of evolutional processes (see p.3) a limiting factor designating this turning point and developmental limits was environment - properties of environment. It designates framework both for mega as well as giga evolution. diagram 4. Genus being turning point of whole gigaevolution. Conception of microevolution of Gould-Eldredge can get confirmation from the point of view of my theory of biomegaevolution, considering that evidences confirming its rightness seem to be more convincing than evidences in interest of Punctuationalism. Hitherto conception of Gould-Eldredge was treated harshly. There is not its in basic manuals from a scope of biology.
Logistic development can explain also a difference between a qualitative change and quantitative change. It shows that each kind of so called qualitative change, like for example liquefaction of gas, is just some form of quantitative change. Marxists are using conception of change where quantitative changes transform to qualitative change. But firstly it is philosophy - so usually speaking about nothing, their whole conception is very unclear and in some part basing on philosophy of G.F.Hegel which is worse unclear. Secondly, this idea is containing fundamental mistake that there is a difference between qualitative and quantitative change. One from subprocesses of sociomegaevolution we can see below. Primordial phase of development of civilization was dominated by religious thinking, at present we are during transfer into scientific phase. diagram 5. Social development 3. Mechanism of described mega and giga evolutional processes is based on three rules:
(1) First predicates that no development cannot last endlessly.
(2) Second that unopposed development has autogenous tendency to self accelerating in compliance with simple rule of duplication or multiplication quantity of evolutional improvements - a model of this process can be sequence of numbers ...0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8.... Simple organisms possess small quantity of adaptive and constructional solutions, multiplication their quantity does not bring through longer time greater results. Only after achievement of certain level of complication their multiplication effects with impetuous development. Similarily as duplication of small values does not bring through longer time greater effects, only after achievement of certain level appears impetuous increase.
(3) Third predicates that when self accelerating evolution meets limiting factors then begins more and more quickly slowdown, in compliance with simple rule of partition - which a model can be sequence of numbers ...8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25.... Complex organisms possess huge quantity of adaptive and constructional solutions, and after achievement of certain level of complication further impetuous increasing of number of complications becomes impossible. They meet limiting factors, which more and more diminish quantity of evolutional improvements. Similarily as first partition of great values brings visible results, later partition of small values does not bring greater effects. Gregory Podgorniak, Poland (2008) * Email informing about this work was sent to a number of American and English universities and scientific magazines
* It can be assume that extinction events are connected clearly with logistic development. Each such event can mean a jump on higher level of evolution. For example last Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event of reptilia tied in with transition on higher level of evolutional development and with a capture of environment by mammalia. about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship, and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree (while in Poland the system of education is amiss constructed, age limit for doctoral studies amounts 35 years). Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist. email contact: email@example.com map of my research