Materialism assumes that the only existing being is non-mental matter, the indestructible material to which all manifestations of reality are reduced. A related stand to materialism is realism proclaiming the existence of extra-mental reality. Classical materialism assumes that all things are made of small particles. In the 20th century, this position gave way to wave-particle duality, where next to particles, waves are equally important (it is worth adding that next to the waves, fields are also important). Idealism derives from Plato's theory of ideas, and the later main idealistic doctrine, which is Bishop Berkeley's theory, inherits the fundamental error of Plato's theory. However, I take a position different from materialism and idealism, that could be described as some form of realism. 2. Logistic development (see for example my text Sociological theory) can explain also a difference between a qualitative change and quantitative change. It shows that each kind of so called qualitative change, like for example liquefaction of gas, is just some form of quantitative change. Marxists are using conception of change where quantitative changes transform to qualitative change. But firstly, their whole conception is very unclear and in some part basing on philosophy of G.F.Hegel which is worse unclear. Secondly, this idea is containing fundamental mistake that there is a difference between qualitative and quantitative change.
What I would like to emphasize is each so called qualitative change, for example the transition of water into ice, or steam into water, is actually a cumulative quantitative change; that is, a quantitative change taking place quickly over a short period of time. 3. It is worth noting that all traditional and contemporary esoterics consists mainly of nonsense. Theosophy, anthroposophy, gnosticism, spiritualism, astrology, freemasonry, kabbalah, hermeticism, tarot and so on are just nonsense. For example, the theosophical concept of hidden masters is a fantasy, as is the existence of the Great White Brotherhood.
The structure of man looks like this: body-soul-spirit. This division can also be described as soma-pneuma, this approach seems more adequate for some reasons than the body-soul-spirit division. Soma includes body and soul, pneuma is another term for what is sometimes called the personal spirit, but the specific concept of Pneuma seems more appropriate. 1. Structure of a person Soma consists of three bodies -
a) a body observable in visible light made of atoms
b) the first subtle body probably built of protons, sometimes called the astral body - which may be wrong, concentrated within the visible body, the thinned coating is observable about 1,2 m around the visible body
c) a second subtle body, probably made of electrons, sometimes called the mental body - which may be wrong, the thinned coating is observable probably about 12 m around the visible body.
The first subtle body can be observed in ultraviolet light, its photographs are possible using special filters (see photograph). 2. Photograph of the first subtle body obtained using a special UV filter, the author of the photo probably was not aware of the obtained result. I discovered this photo by accident, by searching images of ultraviolet photography, around the year 2005. Colors are different than on photographs in visible light what is natural for UV photography. This photo is proof of the existence of the soul. It is possible to build devices for observing the subtle first level world, which is the world of posthumous life and under certain conditions of life in a dream. There are no demons, no angels, no supernatural beings, but apparitions seen from a subtle first level world, these are people processed by conditions. The second subtle body can be observed in X-ray light, its photographs or observation is possible in this range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The second level subtle world is also a world of posthumous life.
The pneuma probably also consists of three bodies. The lowest of them, being the equivalent of the visible, atomic body, is made of quark-gluon matter which is indecomposable and the body itself is relatively eternal. Pneuma is an autonomous entity capable of independent action, speaking and thinking. Pneuma's basic body (like the others) resembles a visible, atomic body. The size also does not differ from the visible body so Pneuma is not huge or large as it is usually thought.
What is in fact schizophrenia? Is Schizophrenia a serious disease as it is usually taken? Or is schizophrenia the influence of a demon or demons? Well, the secret is that schizophrenia is just a game of mind as it takes place between Pneuma and Soma. The voice heard in schizophrenia is the voice of Pneuma, while the other voices are those of other Pneumas. It is worth adding that some Pneumas often generate a disturbing calming sound in the form of silencing. 4. Popper's Falsificationism seems to be wrong because the theory tests always strive to confirm it or confirmation and not refute it. So this concept is not unreliable with the actual way science is practiced. From the point of view of scientific research, striving to refute the theory seems to be a kind of nonsense and is something illogical.
For example, General Relativity found confirmation in the Mercury orbit anomalies that Newton's theory could not explain. This confirmation is treated as proof of the validity of the theory. Of course, you can give more examples.
Knowledge is inherently uncertain, as the ancient skeptics have already demonstrated. Therefore, science must use invalid inferences. Induction inferences is one of the basic types of inference of empirical sciences. These are uncertain inferences. Deductive inferences belong to the field of formal sciences such as mathematics and logic. On the basis of empirical science, the use of deduction is not meaningfully possible. By the way, ancient skeptics have also undermined the credibility of the deduction. 5. Induction would provide knowledge about the future, as would all scientific prediction. However, any transfer of the past to the future is contradictory, because the future does not yet exist and is therefore non-empirical, unverifiable. Therefore, there is no reasoning that gives some knowledge, because 1. there cannot be knowledge about what is not empirical 2. there cannot be knowledge about what does not yet exist, therefore knowledge by its very nature is uncertain and if it was certain it would have to be contradictory. Still different, if certain knowledge is such knowledge that leads to the future, it can be seen that it is impossible because the future does not yet exist. Therefore, no reasoning about facts can be certain. We can't even know what will happen in a few seconds because the future does not yet exists. 6. One can believe or not into theory of reincarnation, but for my money this is one from few religious conceptions which is valid - of course after certain and pretty thorough corrections, for example conception of karma is in big degree a superstition. Should be rejected also every theistic religion and pantheism. As I have said the law of karma is largely a superstition. The concept of reincarnation itself seems useful after the appropriate revising. The next incarnations resemble the earlier ones, memory plays a major role here. Essentially, sex is a permanent feature of subsequent incarnations. Man does not incarnate in the form of insects, animals or plants, but retains species affiliation. Incarnation is the work of a pneuma. I will add that I am a strong opponent of abortion.
What is called enlightenment is a mere illusion (although some form of enlightenment is possible), an escape from subsequent incarnations, or freeing yourself from the cycle of birth and death, is a mistake. Subsequent incarnations are beneficial and are associated with the process of evolution, so gradual development and improvement.
Buddha, Christ or Krishna were ordinary people, not any avatars. The avatar concept is bullshit. The doctrine of the brachman of Advaita Vedanta, or the existence of the absolute, is fiction, as is every concept of God. 7. For philosophy not questions are important but answers. Philosophy has not to pose, to multiply questions and leave it unanswered. What allegedly has to be its characteristic attribute. As same as science has not to pose questions and leave it unanswered. A function of philosophy, as same as of science is both to pose as and to give answers. But second are much more precious then first. 8. The development of science cannot overtake the moral development of society, an example of such a phenomenon is the release of atomic energy (under the pressure of Hitler's actions), this example should be a warning to future researchers to carefully present certain results and results, and hide some facts as necessary. Consider how you can make use of your concepts and the scale of the threat. 9. Marxism's errors consist in the fact that 1. the final development is the middle class, not the working class 2. A process of qualitative transition is not necessarily and usually not revolutionary. Even a demographic boom with a growth rate of 2% per year is not revolutionary but evolutionary. Against the background of previous development, it seems very fast, but only because that one was very slow. Therefore, if changes are needed, they should be endeavor gradually, though dynamically reaching them finally 3. Any so called qualitative change - for example, the transition of water into ice, or steam into water - is actually a cumulative quantitative change; that is, a quantitative change taking place quickly over a short period of time. 10. The need to 'understand' such things as time, space, strength, matter and so on is a myth. In this case, you cannot 'understand' anything or you do not need to 'understand' anything, just to ascertain empirical phenomena. All knowledge in this case is limited to empirical data and nothing else exists, and the supposition that it exists is an illusion. Understanding means to build an explanation, and the explanation is to bring it down. If we want to 'explain' space, we will simply bring it to something different and simpler. Just as matter is explained by reducing it to atoms. 11. Plato proposed an involutionary model of social development based on gradual decline and degeneration. Which exactly contradicts evidently occurring social evolution and the emergence of an increasingly perfect system. Popper, in opposing historicism, did not take into account the theory of Spencer or Comte, where the development is shown so clearly that only a complete fool can deny it, it probably resulted from his ignorance. 12. Most metaphysics is irrelevant because it uses a not-so-precise, accurate, clear language. With such formalization of physics and chemistry, an informal study of reality should be possible, one should only indicate what it should look like, it should be a scientific philosophy, clear and linguistic precise. These include philosophy closely related to empirical sciences, theory of science or philosophy explicitly referring to empirical sciences. 13. cyt. (The positive philosophy of Auguste Comte, freely translated and condensed by Harriet Martineau, chapter I):
"From the study of the development of human intelligence, in all directions, and through all times, the discovery arises of a great fundamental law... that each of our leading conceptions - each branch of our knowledge - passes successively through three stages: the theological, or fictitious; the metaphysical, or abstract; and the scientific, or positive. In other words, the human mind, by its nature, employs in its progress three methods of philosophizing, the character of which is essentially different, and even radically opposed: namely, the theological method, the metaphysical, and the positive." 14. Characteristics of extended theory of evolution of Herbert Spencer, presents as follows - process of evolution is an integration of matter, whereat matter passes from a state of undefined, incoherent homogeneity, simplicities, primordialities, physicalnesses, unformed, amorphisms, undimensional, uniformity, homomorphism to a definite, coherent heterogenicity, complexities, modernities, cultural, formation, construction, dimensionality, variousness, polymorphism. This seizure of process of evolution has a polycomplex character. 15. Astrology is the same what a divination from scattered animal bones - so from an aleatorily obtained configuration, function of bones fulfil planets; "accuracy" comes from inaccuracy of used categories which each separately can contain any property or notion. Of course, information value of such "method" must be equal zero. 16. Against claims of such fools as Popper atomism does not descend from metaphysical speculations. Democritus took over this view from Hindus during his travels in the east, conception of atoms existed there at the very latest about VIII century BC, and was based on paranormal perceptions of yogis - a source could be only paranormal activity, but for sure not philosophical speculation, in Europe spherical atoms appeared not before XIX century AD. 17. The basic errors of typical philosophy are rationalism and turbidity. For example, Kant seems to build a system that does not respect the principles of empiricism, and this alone means that its concept must be wrong at its very root. In addition, the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Hegel or Kant seem unbearably cloudy. Gregory Podgorniak, Poland (2019) Comte's Theory of Science According to him whole of sciences consists of theoretical and applied knowledge. Theoretical knowledge divide on general as physics or biology, which are an object of his research and detailed such as botany, zoology or mineralogy. Main fields mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology it is possible to order according to decrescent range of research and complicatedness of theoretical tools what is connected with growing complexity of investigated phenomenones. Following sciences are based on previous, for example to methodically coll chemistry, we must imply acquaintance of physics, because all chemical phenomena are more complicated than physical phenomena, are also from them dependent and themselves do not have on them an influence. Similarly sciences classified as earlier, are older and more advanced from these which are presented as later. This theory is clearly analogous to Mariotte's Law. Mariotte's Law Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist, meteorologist, physiologist. He initiated meteorological research and measurement. In his Discourse on the Nature of Air (1676) coined the word barometer and formulate basic tenet of physics called Mariotte's law states that at constant temperature T volume V of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional as its pressure p: pV = constant its graph is hyperbole: pV = const = nrT p = rT / V about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship, and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree. Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Bodhidharma (5th or 6th century) buddhist patriarch, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist. email contact: email@example.com map of my research