HOME PAGE | Research

Sociological theory

1. Division of sociology seizes aspect structural, systematical, developmental and functional. From the point of view of biology, sociology is a domain investigating population, particularly human population. Its purpose is to build general theory of this population on three levels macro, mezo and micro as contrasted to detailed theories, political science, economical, historical etc. So its field can be differentiate from other social sciences as political science, economy, cultural anthropology, ethnography, history, cultural studies etc.
Creator of sociology A.Comte developed one from firsts modern theory of science. Main domains - astronomy and mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, sociology - today at next place we can add psychology, he ordered according to the diminishing degree of the generality - diminishing range, from astronomy to sociology, to which accompanies the growth of the complexity of investigated phenomenones . Whereat every domain previous following determines for its indispensable base. From this theory results clearly that sociology investigates most complexity phenomenones and needs proper methods but strongly analogical to methods of physics or biology. The antipositivistic sociology being expression of unripeness transfers sociology into a sphere of pseudoscience and rubbish.
As biology come its own generally obligatory paradigmatic theory which is theory of evolution, similarly and even earlier became with sociology. Thus levering of the importance of theory of evolution aground of sociology is similar to levering the importance of theory of evolution aground biology. Both undertakings are in the same way nonsensical and unscientific.

2. A.Comte developed also theory of progress of knowledge being simultaneously one of most general conception of social progress, cyt. (The positive philosophy of Auguste Comte, freely translated and condensed by Harriet Martineau, chapter I):
"From the study of the development of human intelligence, in all directions, and through all times, the discovery arises of a great fundamental law, to which it is necessarily subject, and which has a solid foundation of proof, both in the facts of our organization and in our historical experience. The law is this: that each of our leading conceptions - each branch of our knowledge - passes successively through three stages: the theological, or fictitious; the metaphysical, or abstract; and the scientific, or positive. In other words, the human mind, by its nature, employs in its progress three methods of philosophizing, the character of which is essentially different, and even radically opposed : namely, the theological method, the metaphysical, and the positive. Hence arise three philosophies, or general systems of conceptions on the aggregate of phenomena, each of which excludes the others. The first is the necessary point of departure of the human understanding, and the third is its fixed and definitive state. The second is merely a state of transition.
...The progress of the individual mind is not only an illustration, but an indirect evidence of that of the general mind. The point of departure of the individual and of the race being the same, the phases of the mind of a man correspond to the epochs of the mind of the race. Now, each of us is aware, if he looks back upon his own history, that he was a theologian in his childhood, a metaphysician in his youth, and natural philosopher in his manhood. All men who are up to their age can verify this for themselves."

3. Models are a basic component of the scientific explanation and one of bases for building of a theory. It is worth to notice that organicism or organic analogy was a model and not an metaphor. For a development of culture biomorphotical model (from biomorphosis - human life cycle) seems to be useful - similarly as in a field of physics a good model of a structure of atom it proved to be a planetary system. But Comte did not descry, probably because that in his times this phenomenon was not yet clearly visible, that last period of development of civilization had impetuous character. What corresponds with biomorphotical model but only in its more exact kind. We can agree that "phases of the mind of a man correspond to the epochs of the mind of the race" but partition of Comte on phases childhood, youth and adulthood isn't fully precise. It is known that adulthood phase is preceded by a period of ripening, following after a period of childhood. Just in this period we are found at present. It have started not long ago, about year 1700 and characterize it accelerated and even impetuous development, demographic, civilizational and technical.
Applied effectively in my general theory of evolution (see map of my research) logistic development (diag . 1) is best fitted for its description. Till now unsolved problem what means that stormy social development can find a clear explanation aground of proposed theory.

diagram 1. Logistic development

However this process did not run correctly because in second half of twentieth century have led to overpopulation - that is to say so called populational gigantism, ripening leads to outgrown later phase what is connected with generally low intellectual level of population and relatively weak organization of societies. Overpopulated areas look like slums, what concerns all great metropolises and strongly urbanized regions. Normal cities have from couple hundreds thousands of inhabitants to maximum two millions and as a metro to couple millions. Overpopulation makes gradually for serious social and even biological degradation of inhabitants of overpopulated areas. An accelerative demographic development which starts about year 1600, should stop in 50's of XX century, at the level of 2,8 billions (in Europe milliards) - average population density 28/km^2.

According to Comte's conception religion belongs to childish phase of development of civilization, whereas metaphysics to youthful phase. His theory assumes besides that basic fields of natural sciences entered already to phase of adulthood, passing previously through phases religious and metaphysical.
But more exact analysis of chronology of development shows that culture only began to go out from period of intellectual childhood so metaphysics and philosophy we should count to first phase with religion, besides that no domains of sciences not yet reached even the phase of youth. This is one from basic differences between our conception and conception of Comte - period of youth only comes, whereas at present we are within a period of ripening.
Thus schema of development phases breaks up on four and not on three stages - childhood, ripening, youth and adulthood. First is religious , mythological and philosophical phase, last is scientific and technical phase. Two previous adulthood stages we can describe as connection of phase first and fourth in different proportions. Whereat coming period of youth can appear in unripe variant religious -scientific (and philosophical-scientific) form, or in variant ripe speculative-scientific depending on further direction of development and depending on abilities from dealing with problems which stay in front of period of ripening which is mixture of religion, philosophy, pseudoscience and science. Dependently from this reach period of adulthood will be possible more quickly, will very lengthen or will reach a true ripeness will become at all not possible in a cycle of development of Homo sapiens culture lasting tens thousands of years.

diagram 2. Ripening of civilization

In first period dominated fictitious and delusional representations mythological and religious. Which anyway till today kept the vitality. Still at the beginning the twentieth century came into being the theosophical sect proclaiming the existence of elves, gnomes, and sylphs. Still alive astrology is the same what a divination from scattered animal bones - so from an aleatorily obtained configuration, function of bones fulfil planets; "accuracy" comes from inaccuracy of used categories which each separately can contain any property or notion. Of course, information value of such "method" must be equal zero. The religious phase splits on several periods, however possesses certain basic guilds. The faith into sylphs and gods is in fact the same thing, and is based on the appeal to rubbish and fictions. In the last, most shorter phase of this stage to fictions of religion joined yet fictions of metaphysical and philosophical speculation, almost always as same as religion detached completely from the reality. Present stage of ripening of culture leads from religious and philosophical superstitions to more scientific stage of youth.

4. General civilizational megaevolution is leading from simple religious culture to complex cosmical culture. It consists of three main subprocesses connected with three types of civilization, dependently from their cosmic range:

diagram 3. Sociomegaevolution

- Type I, planetary, is connected with transition inside simple religious culture, about 10000 BC
- Type II, civilization which is entering in interplanetary space, is connected with transition from simple religious culture to complex scientific culture, present and future time
- Type III, which is entering in interstellar space, far future

5. Psychology can appear as domain extremely helpful for build of sociological theory. If because in psychology must prevail cognitive paradigm then also as same must be in sociology, because social processes are resultant of individual processes. Thus society can be seized as system of transmission of data, informations, knowledge, cognition. Completed by transmission of consumer goods, effects of production, money, interpersonal and emotivic relations. It is worth to see that a notion of system is here understood unlike in hitherto existing sociological theories. In society occur cognitive processes, such as learning, remembering, creativity which an expression is Culture.
But level of social thinking is low. Thence so characteristic for the society logic of the crowd, bandwagon, group thoughtlessness. Cognitive social processes are the resultant of individual processes, and the average of these processes oscillates round the value 100 IQ. Such is also the intelligence of the society as information system. Generally we can say that society is a system witless and ineffective. Choices made by it are most often wrong, widespread opinions false, stupid and deleterious.
Such looks image of the whole of society, but it is possible divide in it in fact three societies, society let us call it cognitively exclusive, society cognitively medial and society cognitively poor.
Such divide however does not overlap on other kinds of social stratification, such as stratification of the wealth.
Other example, above 90% of society confesses such or other religion, believes in some version of God. These views are completely false and deleterious however still penance and surely long will penance before cognitive social "system" will learn to deny them. And the learning of this system lasts usually very long. In statistics logistic model connects with normal distribution model which is perfectly fitted to describing of social structure.

diagram 3. Sociostructure

6. Widespread in present sociological environments belief about rightness and importance of the theory of M.Weber on the subject of rising of capitalism and his other conceptions is comical.
Firstly notion of the capitalism itself which uses Weber is doubtful. Was introduced by Marx, within the framework of his unripe theory. Instead of the notion of the capitalistic society, often is using better notion of industrial society. If we will use this notion then axled will be problem of rising of industry, and for this base determine a development of technics and machines, where axled meaning had an invention of steam engine. Thence a base of development of capitalism in decisive phase was development of technics.
If beginnings of capitalism reach XIII and XIV century then it could not rise with participation of protestant religion because it appears much later in XVI century. Rising of capitalism connects exactly with fall of Middle Ages and with large weakness of influence of religion . If fall of Middle Ages tied in with rising of capitalism then further weakness of religion tied in with his development - a basic factor was not religion but its absence. Thus was exactly inversely than assumes wrong 'view' of Weber.

Regarding Marx, about falseness of his conception should testify so called prognoses of Marx concerning future which would have completely to pass with reality. Bankruptcy of cretinous communist systems have showed emptiness of Marxism and boundlessness of stupidity of these which decided thoughtlessly come after Marx. And it was a wide social phenomenon. Still today Marx finds supporters and continuators also in academical environments - fundamental assumption of so called theory of conflict is erroneous, because not conflict but cooperation (solidarity) is base of society. Without it it would not be able arise or exist.

7. Antipositivistic sociology, fascism, communism, racism, chauvinism, terrorism, terror, genocide, hegelianism, kantianism, irrationalism , antinaturalism, socratism, platonism, anti semitism, aristotelism, christian philosophy, islam, christianity, popperism, anarchism, left , notional anarchism, theism, monotheism, marxism, vulgarness, theologism, nazism, hitlerism, totalitarianism these notions can be practically mention together.
Nota bene other "known" German can soon have "a significant" influence on social phenomena. One can believe or not into theory of reincarnation, but for my money this is one from few religious conceptions which is valid - of course after certain and pretty thorough corrections, for example conception of karma is in big degree a superstition. Now in years 2030-2060 or 2090-2120 (what less probable, similarly as admissible whole range 2040-2110), it can be expected following public activity of A.Hitler. This information can appear insomuch important that probably he will lead to unleashing of nuclear war, what predictably will cause annihilation of biosphere (more in my text Return of a big danger...).

8. Characteristics of extended theory of evolution of Herbert Spencer, presents as follows - process of evolution is an integration of matter, whereat matter passes from a state of undefined, incoherent homogeneity, simplicities, primordialities, physicalnesses, unformed, amorphisms, undimensional, uniformity, homomorphism to a definite, coherent heterogenicity, complexities, modernities, cultural, formation, construction, dimensionality, variousness, polymorphism. This seizure of process of evolution has a polycomplex character.

9. A great contribution of Comte was formulation of full conception of cognitive development, that is to say important part of basic paradigm of sociology. Mistake of later evolutional conceptions was concentrating on secondary proprieties of development. It is worth to notice that presented by me theory creates homogeneous cognitive sociological theory.

(2008)

10. Marxism's errors consist in the fact that 1. The final development is the middle class, not the working class 2. A process of qualitative transition is not necessarily and usually not revolutionary. Even a demographic boom with a growth rate of 2% per year is not revolutionary but evolutionary. Against the background of previous development, it seems very fast, but only because that one was very slow. Therefore, if changes are needed, they should be endeavor gradually, though dynamically reaching them finally 3. Any so called qualitative change - for example, the transition of water into ice, or steam into water - is actually a cumulative quantitative change; that is, a quantitative change taking place quickly over a short period of time (compare logistic development).

11. As I have already noted, conflict theory is incorrect. Because cooperation is the foundation of society, without it it could not arise or exist. As intelligent beings, we should strive for agreement and cooperation, which seems rationally justified. This approach can be called The Theory of Rational Cooperation. For example, education based on the student-teacher relationship involves mutual cooperation between both parties, in the event of a conflict, the education process becomes impossible. Parts of the social system work together, which is the basic property of the system. The benefit and loss account is favorable for cooperation, unlike the conflict where losses prevail. Cooperation is the basis of social order. As can be seen, reason, and therefore the cognitive powers decide about the ability to cooperate, and therefore the superior theory relative to the theory of rational cooperation is cognitive theory. However, the assumptions of conflict theory are fundamentally wrong.

12. Regarding point 5, in a situation where the social system is cognitively inefficient in general, someone may ask, then what is the research? Well, the way out of this situation is to study all three subsystems taking into account the importance of the highest cognitive subsystem that can be generally described as intelligentsia. It occupies part of the curve from diagram 3 shifted to the right. It seems all the more justified that this subsystem is responsible for almost all cognitive and culture-forming functions of the entire social system.

13. Sociologism (term coined by me) - all sciences, their terms and claims can and should be reduced to sociology. On the one hand, the simplification of science leads to physicalism, and on the other, their complication leads to sociologism. For example, physical objects can be treated as social beings, let's say mountains can be reduced to mountain tourism, climbing, social properties of people living in them, photos of mountains, films about mountains, etc.

(2019)

14. If we want to define the era following modernism, instead of using the term postmodernism, we should use the term ultramodernism, which I coined. The era, which can be dated from the 70s of the 20th century, under my logistic analysis (compare point 2) can last for many thousands or tens of thousands of years. Which includes the period of youth, maturity and old age of civilization.

15. I consider the entire human population in my previous and current considerations. It can be assumed that there is a global culture with some territorial differentiation. Over the past centuries, this culture has gained previously unknown properties. Among other things, the subjugation of electromagnetism and electricity turned out to be key.
Thanks to electricity, it was created as if a new population brain in which communication, like in an ordinary brain, is based on the flow of electricity. The scope of social communication has developed enormously thanks to, among others, radio, television, telephony and the Internet. It is worth noting that the brain model is similarly suitable for describing the older population, except that the brain of this population was less developed. In addition, planetary culture is undergoing globalization, or homogenization, some unification and equalization across the globe. From the considerations to date, the concept of population as a brain emerges.
It is worth noting here two circumstances, one is the fact that the brain model perfectly agrees with the cognitive theory of the population, if we assume that the model under consideration is the human brain, because in the human brain cognitive processes prevail. The second is that network concepts fit the brain model very well.
For Culture's memory are primarily responsible its products such as books, and now also data carriers. And so on.
The concept of social brain agrees well with the concept of three subpopulations presented earlier. All manual workers, like the brainstem, are responsible for the vital functions of the population. Intelligentsia in turn, like the cerebral cortex, for the cognitive functions of the population. Intermediate layer for intermediate functions. Intelligentsia, due to the fact that it is responsible for the cognitive functions of the social system, seems in a sense much more important than manual workers, just as the cerebral cortex is in some sense more important than the brainstem.
For my cognitive theory, the analysis of the neural network turns out to be crucial. The brain model appears to be justified by Comte's theory of science, in which biology is the basis for sociology, and from which the latter science can draw key models for itself. Comte successfully used the organicistic model, I use a similar model except that the pattern is not like Comte's the whole organism, but a particular organ, namely the brain.

16. The basic property of a social system is learning. Knowledge as such is practically social, without social interaction knowledge is almost impossible. It boils down to the existence of mainly books, and today also to such media as the Internet. So the social system learns. On this path, among others, science was created and developed. As part of the system under study, communication takes place that comes to language, whether spoken or written.
Other important properties of the social system are generalization of experience, adaptation, information processing, recognition, and self-organization. Data analysis in the social system makes it possible to determine the causes of failures of specific projects undertaken in the past, thanks to which it is easier to avoid mistakes in the future. In addition to the key to the functionalist concept of the social system, equilibrium property and order property, there are also no less key properties. There are ten properties of our social cognitive system:

1) development
2) structure
3) equilibrium
4) order
5) learning
6) inference
7) memory
8) communication
9) adaptation
10) self-organization

I discussed the development and structure of the social system earlier, as did learning. Equilibrium property means among other things that there are not too much or long hesitances. The concept of order comes from Comte. One of the conclusions of the population as a whole is the belief in the existence of the soul. Here it turns out that over 90% of the population believes in its existence. Another conclusion of the population is the belief in the validity of the theory of evolution, although of course this applies to a slightly better-educated part of the population. For culture's memory are responsible its products such as books, and now also data carriers. Communication boils down to language, whether spoken or written. Adaptation involves, for example, adaptation to solve new tasks. Self-organization, describes the process of achieving some order.

17. In addition to industrial production, consumption is an equally important concept. We distinguish primarily market - goods consumption that occur when the consumed goods come from the market, so they were bought by the consumer. In addition, it is also worth mentioning about social consumption when the goods consumed are financed from public funds, as an example can be the use of public library collections.

18. Apart from the industrial revolution, the French revolution and the sometimes mentioned urbanization, there are also other phenomena of key importance from the point of view of sociology from the last centuries. It will be respectively a scientific revolution started with the work "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" and a technical revolution, for which the invention of the steam engine was crucial and the formation of the United States of America. It will be quite right to note that we currently live in a society steeped in science and technics with significant USA influence on a global scale.

19. In biological microevolution, a sigmoid-based mechanism works when a certain population is transformed into another population - one species into another. An appropriate mechanism also based on a sigmoid also works in the social area and interestingly it actually transforms the population into another population, the biological species does not change but the social species changes (the backward one changes into technical), the emergence of a modern society can be compared to the emergence of a biological species . With the fact that sociology is limited to only one biological species, while the old social species disappears, a kond of society, and a new one appears. It is a change of species, the old social species ceases to exist, the old population and a new social species emerges, a new population. One social species over the centuries changes into another, hence if that one has existed for thousands of years then this one will also exist for many thousands or tens of thousands of years. Which includes the period of youth, maturity and old age of civilization.

(2020)

Gregory Podgorniak, Poland

Comte's Theory of Science

Comte's Theory of Science

According to him whole of sciences consists of theoretical and applied knowledge. Theoretical knowledge divide on general as physics or biology, which are an object of his research and detailed such as botany, zoology or mineralogy. Main fields mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology it is possible to order according to decrescent range of research and complicatedness of theoretical tools what is connected with growing complexity of investigated phenomenones. Following sciences are based on previous, for example to methodically coll chemistry, we must imply acquaintance of physics, because all chemical phenomena are more complicated than physical phenomena, are also from them dependent and themselves do not have on them an influence. Similarly sciences classified as earlier, are older and more advanced from these which are presented as later. This theory is clearly analogous to Mariotte's Law.

Mariotte's Law

Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist, meteorologist, physiologist. He initiated meteorological research and measurement. In his Discourse on the Nature of Air (1676) coined the word barometer and formulate basic tenet of physics called Mariotte's law states that at constant temperature T volume V of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional as its pressure p:

pV = constant

its graph is hyperbole:

pV = const = nrT

p = rT / V

Mariotte's Law'

about the author, My name is Gregory Podgorniak (brn. 01.1977, Szczecinek, West Pomerania, Poland). I am working on field of natural as well as social sciences. During studies at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan (1996-1999) I was actively act in student scientific organisation, got a scientific scholarship, and one from my articles titled Circulus vitiosus and fourfold petitio principii in the system of Descartes was published in Humanistic Drafts of Publishing House of Humaniora Foundation in Poznan, no. 6, 1998. Unfortunately certain fate events made impossible to me continuing studies to master's and later doctor's degree. Thence I was forced to be content only with a title of bachelor.
Thanks to deep and penetrating researchings I was able to establish indisputably some number of my past incarnations reaching of ancient period, these data are certain, these incarnations are: Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French philosopher and sociologist, Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) French physicist and meteorologist, Bodhidharma (5th or 6th century) buddhist patriarch, Aenesidemus (1 st century BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Arcesilaus (315-241 BC) Greek sceptical philosopher, Gorgias (485-380 BC) Greek sophist.

email contact: podgorniakgr@gmail.com

map of my research



10347